Parents

Parent Information

Looking for Childcare

When choosing a child care program, families should be selective in finding a setting that suits their family’s unique needs. Child Care Resource & Referral helps parents define their personal criteria for the ideal care setting for their child and identify potentially suitable programs. Contact CCR&R , so our Child Care Specialists can assist you with your family needs. This service is at no cost and all information obtained is confidential.

CCR&R can help by:

  • Providing consumer education on a variety of options enabling parents to make the best child care choice.
  • Customized referrals from a continually updated database.
  • Developing more care options to meet traditional and non-traditional demands for child care in every community.
  • Direct link to child care subsidies which help eligible families pay for child care.
  • Assisting parents of children with special needs to find the best care in natural child care settings.
  • Counseling and resource materials that enable parents to raise healthy children and maintain positive child care relationships.
  • Guide to Choosing Quality Child Care

Choosing child care is an important decision. A safe and positive child care setting promotes healthy growth and development. It takes time, patience and understanding as to what to look for when selecting child care. You know the needs of your child and family. However, you may need assistance in matching those needs to available resources. That is why our Child Care Specialist at CCR&R can assist you in making this important decision.

Step 1: Contact CCR&R for Referrals

CCR&R maintains a listing of child care providers within Genesee and Orleans Counties. CCR&R provides parents with a list of child care providers at no cost. By entering the parent’s criteria into our database we can search for matching child care services. Along with referrals, consultations are given to assist parents who need child care in a neighboring county, by providing the contact information of the CCR&R in their county. All information is maintained with strict confidentiality. Educational materials will be sent to the parent. CCR&R does not make recommendations. We also do not guarantee the quality of any program listed in our referral database. It is important that parents complete the steps in this guide to choosing a quality child care program that meet their needs.

Step 2: Call Child Care Givers

Though CCR&R makes every attempt to update the vacancy information on every provider. We complete the update on an as needed basis. We also do comprehensive updates yearly. Parents should call care givers to find out if they have openings for their child. You should also ask what days and hours they are open, what ages they serve, if they provide transportation, their location and the cost of care (some offer financial assistance, so be sure to ask). Also, ask what the parent should bring, for example, a pack-n-play, hi-chair, etc. Be sure to ask if they have a waiting list for the ages of the child (ren) you need care for and if there is an application fee. Schedule a time to visit.

Step 3: Visit and Evaluate

Visit at least 2 or 3 caregivers in person before you decide where to place your child(ren). Try to visit while day care children are there so you can see how the care giver interacts with them. Spend at least one hour in the room or rooms where your child would be and spend time talking with the owner, director and teacher (s). Ask the caregivers about their background, education and how long they have been caring for children. If you are visiting a center ask about turnover of staff. Look for the quality indicators in the link below as you evaluate each program, place a check next to each quality indicator that the program demonstrates. If a program does not meet all of the indicators in this guide, it does not mean that they are of low quality. This is just a guide and you should go with your own instincts and choose a day care that best meets your family’s needs. Before you decide on a facility, be sure to check their licensing records on the Office of Children and Families (OCFS) website. You want to check if they have any current violations.

Affording Child Care | Child Care Rates

Providers

The New York State Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) is accepting applications for the Child Care Stabilization Grant made available through the federal American Rescue Plan Act and the Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations (CRRSA) Act. The Child Care Stabilization Grant represents an unprecedented opportunity and investment to effectively stabilize the child care sector.

• Child Care Stabilization Grant Portal: ocfs.ny.gov/childcare-stabilization

Feel free to contact Taryn Moyle, CCRR Program Manager, for more information @ 585-589-5088 or tmoyle@caoginc.org

Child Care Information and Options

Listed below are brief descriptions of common types of child care programs in New York State. Each program is regulated by the state Office of Children and Family Services.

Day Care Centers – provide care for more than six children at a time, not in a personal residence. The maximum allowable number of children will depend on number of adults in each classroom and square footage.

Small Day Care Centers – provide care for up to six children, not in a personal residence.

Family Day Care Homes – provide care for three to eight children at a time in a residence; may add one or two school-age children. The maximum allowable number of children will depend on whether there are and how many infants are in care.

Group Family Day Care Homes – provide care for seven to fourteen children at a time in a residence; may add one or two school-age children. The maximum allowable number of children will depend on whether there are and how many infants are in care. A provider must use an assistant when more that six children are present.

School-Age Child Care Programs – provide care for more than six children from kindergarten through age twelve. Care for children during non-school hours; also may provide care during school vacation periods and holidays

Useful Links

Assistance for Child Care: Improving Quality

The quality of care a young child receives has been shown to greatly impact his or her quality of life. This includes the child’s ability to develop and succeed. Research studies show that quality child care has experienced providers low staff turnover and highly trained staff.

All Child Care Providers may call or visit both of our offices. Information about state regulations, guidance with program and curriculum and help with solving any issue or concern is part of what CCR&R can do for you. These services help to improve the quality of the child care and increase the well-being of the children. Some of the services are:

1. On-site Assessments and Quality Assurance ITA Projects

CCR&R offers on-site assessments and technical assistance in requested areas. These projects strive to improve the quality of child care. Services, which are customized for each child care program, may include:

Steps in Projects

  • Identification of areas of strength and areas needing improvement following an on-site assessment with a trained facilitator
  • Assistance in redesigning classroom environments
  • The development of Professional Development Plans for staff
  • Support for teachers of in developing effective school readiness classrooms

Topics for Projects

  • Behavior Issues
  • Quality Improvement
  • Assessment of Children
  • Age Appropriate Activities
  • And anything else you may need

2. Telephone Consultations with Child Care Programs

Information and materials will be offered upon request through phone call or email consultations. The use of our resource libraries, mailings and any other assistance can be accessed by any communication method.

3. Pursuing Accreditation

Accredited programs invest in early childhood education because they believe in the benefits of quality programs to children and families.

If you wish to begin the process, contact CCR&R and we will help you begin the process!

4. Receiving Grants

Grants are money given to you that can help improve your facility and equipment. Some grant have restrictions on what you can buy and when.

CCR&R Grants

  • As quality becomes more and more of a HOT topic in child care, CCR&R is here to help support your programs to increase the quality you provide to the community. Quality care can be defined as high quality early learning experiences, which helps children do their best. It can also be described as an event, activity, environment, or relationship that have a positive impact on a young child’s cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development. CCR&R has been offering Quality Assurance ITA Project Incentive (QA ITA) projects. These projects are designed to enhance your existing quality programs. CCR&R will come and work with you and your program and focus on one topic area you would like to increase the quality. This process will be done over a few weeks with a financial benefit for the program in the end.
  • Start-Up Grants- are $200 grants which can purchase what you need to begin your child care business.
    Voice Grants

These grants may be used to purchase program materials and supplies, health and safety items, pay for professional development, CPR and First Aid, or cover operating expenses such as a new computer to manage time and attendance.

5. Earning Your CDA

  • You can earn you Child Development Associate by contacting the Council for Professional Recognition.
  • They will help you through the steps of earning this degree and improving the
    quality of your program
  • Need an Advisor? – Call CCR&R and we can help find an advisor who can help you
    finish this process

Training Calendar

Interested in becoming a Child Care Provider?

Do you think you want to become a licensed or registered child care provider? Then follow these steps:

Step One: Visit OCFS

We will contact the Buffalo Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) for a Child Care application. You will receive information about CCR&R services & a copy of the child care regulations, as well as the following:

  • Our newsletter, The Child Care Chronicle
  • Training resources
  • Other pertinent information to help you in the process of becoming a licensed or registered provider.

Shortly after, you will receive your child care application that is generated in Albany, New York.

Step Two: Fill out your application

  • Please contact CCR&R with any questions on completing the application
  • CCR&R contracts with a health care consultant who can help you fill out the health care plan section of the application;
  • A trainer who can help fill out the educations and program information and a specialist for any other issues you may have.

Step Three: Call CCR&R for training and grants:

Once you submit your application to the OCFS, please do the following:

  • If you plan on becoming a family or group family child care, you are required to sign up for the 15 hour health & safety class. CCR&R will perform this training for you and assist you in obtaining a rebate from the Professional Development Program to pay for this class.
  • CCR&R can also provide you with information about receiving a Start-Up Grant from Community Action. This grant can help you purchase items needed for your program or items required by your licensor.

Once you are licensed you will continue to receive services from CCR&R:

  • Trainings, all our trainings are appropriate to your needs – CEUs are attached to each training
  • Assistance whenever you need help.

If you need any further assistance with stating a child care business, please contact CCR&R or you may contact Child Care Aware of America. Child Care Aware of America is a complete resource for new and existing providers.

Financial Assistance:

Child and Adult Care Food Program – CACFP is a nutrition education and meal reimbursement program helping providers serve nutritious and safely prepared meals and snacks to children and adults in child care settings.

Child Care Trainings

All regulated child care providers are mandated to 30 hours of training every 2 years. A child care provider must have at least one hour of training in each of these topics:

  • Principles of Early Childhood Development
  • Nutrition & Health Needs of Infants & Children
  • Child Day Care Program Development
  • Safety & Security Procedures
  • Business Record Maintenance & Management
  • Child Abuse & Maltreatment Identification & Prevention
  • Statues & Regulations Pertaining to Child Day Care
  • Statues & Regulations Pertaining to Child Abuse & Maltreatment
  • Identification & Prevention of Shaken Baby Syndrome

Contact CCR&R for information about our trainings or click on the link for The Child Care Chronicle, the CCR&R newsletter. For information on the National Accreditation process for Child Care click on the National of Child Care Professionals link below. For Information on obtaining the Child Development Associate click on Council for Professional Recognition For information on the Early Care & Learning Council, the agency that oversees CCR&Rs in the state, click on the link.

If you are unable to attend CCR&R trainings and/or in need of online trainings, please click one of links below. These trainings are approved by the Office of Family and Children Services:

Please visit the CDA Class website for help earning your Child Development Associate.

The Training Resource Database is a listing of a variety of statewide organizations that provide training that is relevant to people working in early childhood and school-age care programs.

NAEYC’s interactive online learning programs allow you to deepen your skills and knowledge anytime, anywhere!

Winning Beginning NY is a statewide coalition working to inform policy makers and the public about the many benefits of early care and learning including home visiting, child care and Pre-K.

In order to best meet the needs of the child care provider, please let us know what trainings you need. If you have a training topic you would like us to address, please email lfriesen@caoginc.org.

Office of Children & Family Services

The Office of Children & Family Services is the regional office oversee all licensed and registered providers in Genesee and Orleans Counties.

Please contact the New York State Office of Children & Family Services to receive information about grants, regulations or licensing issues. In addition, you may contact NYS OCFS if you wish to expand your existing program or you need help with health & safety concerns, grants, regulations or licensing issues. In addition, you may contact NYS OCFS if you wish to expand your existing program or you need help with health & safety concerns.

NYS Office of Children & Family Services
Buffalo Regional Office 295 Main Street Room 545
Buffalo, NY 14203
Phone: (716)847-3828
Fax: (716)847-3688
Website

New Provider Business Profile form

Have you created your profile with Child Care Resource & Referral’s as a registered provider yet? Complete and return the Provider Business Profile form so you can be included in the CCR&R database. The information you provide us will be used to match parents’ needs to your child care program through our referral service. The more accurate your information is, the more accurately we can match parents’ needs to the services you provide. Parents from all over the county access our service when looking for child care. CCR&R is also great way to market your program without paying for advertising cost! The information you provide us is important not only to your program but also to the community.

CCR&R Provider Updates form 2018

To have the enrollment form mailed to you, call (585)589-5088 in Orleans County or (585)343-7727 in Genesee County.

Once completed, you can return the form to:

Orleans County:
Child Care Resource & Referral
113 East State Street
PO BOX 22
Albion, NY 14411
Fax: (585)589-5321
ccrrorl@caoginc.org

Genesee County:
Child Care Resource & Referral
5073 Clinton Street Road
Batavia, NY 14020
Fax: (585)343-4063
ccrrgen@caoginc.org

Existing Provider Business Profile Form

If you’re a provider who has an existing profile with CCR&R, we want to ensure that our records are correct. Please complete and return the Provider Business Profile form so we may continue to referrer families to your program. It is imperative you provide us with current information as this will lead to matching parents’ needs to your child care program through our referral service. The more accurate your information is, the more accurately we can match parents’ needs to the services you provide. Parents from all over the county access our service when looking for child care. CCR&R is also great way to market your program without paying for advertising cost! The information you provide us is important not only to your program but also to the community.

To have this form mailed, call (585)589-5088 in Orleans County or (585)343-7727 in in Genesee County. You may return it via fax, or email to the information listed above.

>> Download Form <<

Community

How does child care affect your business? In more ways than you can imagine:

  • Boosting Recruitment: 85% of employers report that assuring child care services for their employees improved employee recruitment.
  • Reduced Turnover: Almost two-thirds of employers found that helping employees find child care services dramatically reduced turnover.
  • Lowering Absenteeism: 54% of employers report that child care services had a positive impact on employee absenteeism, reducing missed workdays by as much as 20-30%.
  • Increasing Productivity: 49% of employers report that child care services had helped boost employee productivity.

Parents know that the child care arrangement they choose will impact the well being of their child and their own success at work. Parents who constantly worry about the quality of their child’s environment, or who rely on an unprepared caregiver, suffer from stress that may derail their careers.

Working parents need child care, without it they are unable to meet the needs of their employers. Here is where Child Care Resource & Referral can help.

  • First we can assist your employees to find quality child care that fit their family’s needs. Finding child care is key in helping employees maintain their jobs, reduce absenteeism and increase productivity.
  • Second, we can help parents pay for child care by sharing resources that provide subsidize payments for child care.
  • Third, we can assure the providers they are utilizing are following NYS Child Care Regulations, by providing trainings, and grants and offering our assistance whenever needed.

Contact CCR&R for any assistance, brochures, or agency resources.

Orleans County CCR&R
113 East State St
Albion, NY 14411
(585)589-5088
Genesee County CCR&R
5073 Clinton St Rd
Batavia, NY 14020
(585)343-7727

Quality Indicators

Environment
  • Good lighting
  • Rooms occupied by children are clean, attractive, safe, roomy and comfortable
  • Enough toys, games and materials so that children don’t have to wait to use them
  • Space for each child’s belongings, including a change of clothing
  • A safe outdoor play area, both shaded and open with a variety of age appropriate equipment free of hazards that offers space to run, tumble and play
  • A book center with good picture books
  • A parent information board
  • Sturdy, child-size furniture
  • Windows low enough for a child to look outside with appropriate safety barriers
  • Games, arts and crafts, sports and dramatic play for children of all ages
  • A separate crib cot or nap mat for each child
  • Games, arts and crafts, sports and dramatic play for children of all ages
  • A separate crib, cot, or nap mat for each child
  • Quiet, dark and separate nap area
  • Are pets present in the facility? If so, will this impact your decision?
Program
  • A posted schedule of daily activities
  • Good balance between planned activities that are age appropriate and time for free and active play
  • Time for conversation, reading, listening to music, homework, or being alone
  • Activities are interesting, fun and challenging where children can learn by doing and can succeed
  • Children work cooperatively on projects and games to solve problems
  • Children make music and/or listen to music, sing and laugh
  • Infants, when not asleep, are out of the crib and included in age appropriate activities
  • Caregiver (s) play with, sing to, hold, and cuddle each child often throughout the day
  • Caregiver (s) meet regularly to plan and evaluate their program
Policies
  • Up-to-date state license or registration is always posted
  • Parents are actively involved, given opportunities to participate, and welcome to visit at any time
  • Written discipline policy eliminating spanking, shaking, or hurting a child in any way
  • Emergency procedures are posted
  • Policy for handling sick children
  • Holidays and hours of operation are clearly posted
Staff
  • Warm, nurturing, friendly, accepting and patient
  • Caregiver (s) with training and experience (regulated providers required 30 hours of training every 2 years; accredited programs have higher standards than State licensing regulations and usually a higher quality program)
  • Director and head teacher with college level training in early childhood education (in a Day Care Center or School Age Child Care program)
  • Caregiver (s) work as a team (what is their staff turnover? Low staff `turnover may indicate higher quality program since there has been stability and consistency in the program)
  • Caregiver (s) comfort a sad or angry child in a loving way
  • Caregiver (s) offer positive guidance when a child misbehaves
  • Individual needs of children are being met
  • Words of sincere praise and encouragement are given
  • Caregiver (s) encourage children to learn new skills
  • Caregiver (s) are energetic and in control, while being flexible and fun
Nutrition
  • Well-balanced, nutritious meals
  • Pleasant and sociable meal times
  • Infants and toddlers are encouraged to feed themselves
  • Caregiver (s) sit at table with children during meal times
  • Infants held during bottle feeding, and are fed according to their needs and individual schedules
  • Bottles are refrigerated until needed, and used promptly
  • Left over formula discarded at the end of the day
  • Program accommodates special diet needs
Parent Involvement
  • Parents are allowed to visit any time
  • Caregiver (s) inform parents about their children’ successes and about activities for the day (such as nap schedule, meals, etc)
  • Parents may make suggestions about menus, activities and program
  • Parents are encouraged to participate in the program
  • A parent newsletter and/or bulletin board Parents Events occur on a regular basis
  • Regularly scheduled parent meetings
Diaper and Toilet Routines
  • Child-size toilets and sinks
  • Diapers changed without delay after they are soiled, and infants are thoroughly cleaned after the dirty diaper is removed
  • Changing table surface disinfected after each baby is changed
  • Caregiver (s)’ and baby’s hands washed after changing each baby’s diaper
  • Toileting begins only when the child is physically ready, interested and able to understand the process of using the toilet
  • Parents involved in the decision to begin toilet training for their children
  • Toilet training as a positive, pleasant part of toddler’s day
Health and Safety
  • Children are supervised by care giver(s) at all times
  • A first-aid trained staff member at the center at all times
  • A smoke free environment (even when children are not present)
  • A well maintained supply of fire extinguishers, first aid kits, smoke alarms and carbon monoxide detectors in the facility
  • Toys and equipment are clean, sanitized and in good repair (for example: free from sharp edges, splinters, paint chips and loose parts)
  • A written health record is kept for each child
  • Children will be released to another person only if you have given written permission in advance
  • Area that is used for food preparation and eating is clean and sanitary
  • Written procedures for reporting suspected cases of child abuse and neglect by parents or caregiver (s)
  • Written policy stating that medication will only be given to children by a care giver who is certified to administer medication
  • Written policy for handling sick children
  • Diapering/toilet areas clean, free from odor, well-ventilated and removed from the feeding area
  • Pads and blankets changed and laundered daily or more often as needed
  • All children and caregiver (s) wash their hands after using the toilet, before eating and as needed throughout the day
Warning Signs
  • The program does not encourage parents to visit or observe
  • The children move about without any guidance or involvement for 30 minutes or more
  • The caregiver (s) spend most of their time scolding or yelling at the children

* Be sure to check with other parents for references about a provider (s) or call the Regional Office for a history of violations, (716)847-3828. The website listed below can also be accessed for history on the provider as to whether the provider has had any compliance issues. Please note that you can obtain a copy of the NYS Child Care Regulations by contacting our office or visit the Office of Children and Family Services website at http://ocfs.ny.gov/ .

Types of Care

Listed below are brief descriptions of common types of child care programs in New York State. Each program is regulated by the state Office of Children and Family Services.

Day Care Centers – provide care for more than six children at a time, not in a personal residence. The maximum allowable number of children will depend on number of adults in each classroom and square footage. Ratios of adult to children are as follows:

Age of ChildrenStaff: Child RatioGroup Size
Under 6 Weeks1:33
6 Weeks to 18 Months1:48
18 Months to 36 Months1:512
3 Years1:718
4 Years1:821
5 Years1:924
5 Years to 9 Years1:1020
9 Years to 12 Years1:1530

Small Day Care Centers provide care for up to six children, not in a personal residence.

Family Day Care Homes provide care for three to eight children at a time in a residence; may add one or two school-age children. The maximum allowable number of children will depend on whether there are and how many infants are in care.

Group Family Day Care Homes provide care for seven to fourteen children at a time in a residence; may add one or two school-age children. The maximum allowable number of children will depend on whether there are and how many infants are in care. A provider must use an assistant when more that six children are present.

School-Age Child Care Programs provide care for more than six children from kindergarten through age twelve. Care for children during non-school hours; also may provide care during school vacation periods and holidays.

Financial Assistance Options

Multi Child Discounts

Some programs offer fee discounts to parents with more than one child in their program. The discount will vary with each program, but generally programs offering a multi child discount will charge full rate for one child and a reduced rate for that child’s siblings.

TANF -Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is one of the United States of America’s federal assistance programs. It began on July 1, 1997, its purpose is providing cash assistance to indigent American families with dependent children through the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

EITC- Earned Income Tax Credit

The Earned Income Tax Credit or the EITC is a refundable federal income tax credit for low to moderate income working individuals and families. When EITC exceeds the amount of taxes owed, it results in a tax refund to those who claim and qualify for the credit. To qualify, taxpayers must meet certain requirements and file a tax return, even if they do not have a filing requirement. Please visit the IRS website for more information.

Child Care Subsidy

Parents in Genesee & Orleans County may take advantage of a subsidy program to help with the cost of child care. The program operates on a sliding fee scale with parents sharing in the cost. To be eligible, families must be working AND meet the income guidelines below. Contact the Orleans County Department of Social Service at (585)589-3125 or the Genesee County Department of Social Services at (585)344-2580 ext. 6559 for more information.

Family SizeAnnual Gross Family Income Not to Exceed
2$27,380
3 $34,344
4 $41,300
5 $48,260
6 $55,220
7$62,180
8 $69,140

CCR&R Policies

Child Care Complaint Policy

The State Office of Children and Family Services maintains a toll-free complaint line for complaints about day care programs. Call this number during normal working hours and a staff person will take the information. The Office is empowered to investigate any possible violation of child care regulations. If you think a person or program is operating without the proper license or registration certificate, this is also a basis for making a complaint. Your complaint will be investigated, and if it is substantiated, OCFS staff will work with the provider to correct any violations. If you wish to make a complaint, call: (800)732-5207

Confidentiality Policy

All information supplied to CCR&R, whether it is from a partner agent, a provider, or a parent, is held within strictest confidence and can not be divulged to anyone outside of CCR&R. A confidentiality agreement can be put in writing if the client requests it.

Referral Disclaimer

For every parent referral, a disclaimer must be present stating that the information given to CCR&R will be strictly confidential and that the providers listed are not recommendations but referrals.

Diversity

CCR&R welcomes people of any gender identity or expression, race, ethnicity, size, nationality, sexual orientation, ability level, religion, age, family structure, culture, subculture, and political opinion.

CCR&R will treat all people with utmost respect and courtesy. CCR&R will provide services to all people to the best of our ability and will utilize all the resources and materials available.

Early Childhood Development

AgeIntellectualPhysicalSocial
Birth to 2 YearsExploring with their hands and mouth. They bang, throw, drop, shake.

By 24 months, he can find things hidden under two or three other items.

Learning how to use everyday objects is an important development at this age: using a spoon, drinking from a cup, to combing their hair.

By age 2, a child typically will have a vocabulary of 50 words. As she learns to speak, she’ll use two- and three-word sentences, like “More juice,” “Me want cookie,” and “Up, up.”

Children will first learn to hold their head up. Little by little, they begin to roll and to sit (usually by six months).

Children learn to creep, then crawl, pull themselves up, walk while holding onto furniture, stand, and then walk two or three steps without assistance (usually by 12 months).

At 24 months, children can begin to run, kick a ball, and walk up and down stairs (while holding onto someone’s hand).

You can expect your child to imitate facial expressions, and even develop a social smile by three months.

Talking begins with babbling, which leads to gradually learning to say and respond to simple words and phrases. Toddlers will play in parallel—near another child, but not with that child.

Crying is the primary means of communication when infants’ and toddlers’ needs are not being met. Similarly, they smile and giggle when they want more of something, and turn their head, shut their eyes, or cry when they want less of something.

3 to 5 YearsImaginary play is a notable milestone of this stage.

Children begin to name colors and begin to understand simple counting.

It’s important to stimulate your child’s intellectual development by reading aloud to him every day.

Kids gradually begin to understand the concept of time. By age 3, preschoolers know 300 words. That expands to 1,500 words by age 4, and to 2,500 words by age 5. Stimulate their language development through reading, talking, and asking them questions.

Hopping, climbing, swinging, and doing somersaults begin at this stage. By age 5, many kids can stand on one foot for at least 10 seconds.

Children can draw a person with up to four body parts by age 5. They draw circles and begin to learn how to copy a square and some capital letters. They learn how to use scissors. Kids often become frustrated with wanting to do something physically and not being able to do it yet. Thus, they have lots of falls and mishaps.

Interaction with other children increases

A great deal of social development occurs through fantasy play and imagination. Children this age need to learn how to deal with conflict and how to solve problems without so much emotion.

Kids move easily between fantasy and reality, and can become quite emotional about their imaginary play. They often do not know the difference between fantasy and reality, so imaginary monsters under the bed or in the dark are as frightening to them as a real threat.

6 to 9 YearsKids learn to read gradually. Children who are read to aloud and are encouraged to read tend to develop more quickly intellectually.

Your child will become more sophisticated in understanding the concept of time. They enjoy hearing about times past.

By age 6, most children can count to 100. By age 9, they are beginning to learn how to multiply. Engaging the bodies as well as the minds of children this age will help them learn.

More physical abilities will develop. Many children can dribble a ball with one hand by age 6. Most learn how to ride a two-wheel bike. They become more skillful at skipping and catching and throwing a ball.

Kids this age like to move. Many become restless and wiggle if they sit for too long, which is why school can be difficult for some children at this age. Your child may practice balancing a lot. They balance on curbs, chairs, and other high places. Monitor their balancing acts to make sure they’re safe.

Children this age become more adept at relationships, but they also may have many conflicts with their peers.

Many children are competitive, and can become argumentative and quarrelsome when they lose.

Children in this age group can be hard on their younger siblings. At age 6 or 7, kids tend to do best with one friend, butby age 8 or 9 they can begin working well in small groups of three or four.

10 to 14 yearsMost kids enjoy the social aspects of learning. This works well when teachers encourage learning in small groups.

Keep them engaged in school and learning. Encourage their curiosity. Many are strongly influenced by friends, so if they have friends who only want to socialize and not learn, emphasize the importance of having friends and working hard to learn.

Many kids move from “concrete” thinking to “abstract” thinking. Concrete thinkers focus on the here and now. Abstract thinkers focus on issues that are disassociated from a specific instance.

Because kids this age have strong emotions, they tend to either “love” school or “hate” it. If your child happens to “hate” school, help her identify parts that are more enjoyable—even if it’s recess, gym, and lunch. Most kids at this age think there is too much homework. Emphasize how homework helps kids learn. Do homework with them. Make it fun. Applaud their learning and new knowledge.

This is the age when kids need to start using deodorant and learning more personal hygiene. Some go overboard and spend hours in the bathroom. Others resist, refusing to bathe.

Puberty reigns at this age. Puberty, however, has five stages for both boys and girls, which is why you’ll see kids developing at different rates between the ages of 8 and 18.

With growth spurts come clumsiness and a lack of coordination. It isn’t easy for a person to grow six inches within a few months without his sense of balance being disrupted.

Typically, between ages 12 and 14, kids become very aware of their own sexuality and others’ sexuality. Some are nervous about developing too fast. Others are worried about developing too slowly.

If your child is not athletic, help her find a sport or physical activity she enjoys. At this age, kids who don’t excel athletically are tempted to avoid all physical activity. Consider martial arts such as kung fu, judo, karate, or tae kwon do, which often appeal to this age group.

This is the age when peer pressure has the most influence. Kids are more interested in “being the same” and “being accepted.” Thus, many will do things with others they would never do alone.

Relationships can become quite complex. Some kids will not speak to others. Some enjoy fighting and making up.

Some kids have large shifts in their social circles as they go through puberty. Others withdraw and avoid their peers. Some stick with their friends no matter what.
Many kids would rather be social than tend to their school work or other responsibilities. Emphasize how all parts of life are important.

Silliness can rule with some kids. Kids at this age can have a twisted sense of humor.

Many kids push away from their parents and want to spend most of their time with friends. Some homes become tense with young teenagers who like to argue and test. Other homes are calmer with occasional skirmishes. It all depends on the child’s personality. they fit.

The Child Care Chronicle

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